I just returned from a world of hate and am going to tell you my war story, in order to spare you the trip.

Just this morning when starting to work on some ruby-code again I tried executing a rake task that in the process does a simple HTTPS-connection to a Google-Service.


This suddenly returned a very strange error like this:

OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError: SSL_connect returned=1 errno=0 state=SSLv3 read server certificate B: certificate verify failed

Trying the same on machines of two co-workers didn’t show any problems.

Basically this tells you that the certificate-chain for the HTTPS-connection can not be verified. In normal people’s words this means that ruby is not able to do some security-magic that in the process it uses locally installed root-certificates for.


In trying to fix this issue I tried several things ranging from

  • reinstalling rvm (which I use to handle multiple rubies and gems on my machine)
  • to reinstalling brew the OS X package-manager.

No good.

Then while googling the problem I came across a great script called ssl-tools/doctor.rb which finally pointed me into the correct direction.

The script analyzes SSL-problems with ruby and gives a bit more verbose errors than the simple exception. This turned up like this:

ruby doctor.rb accounts.google.com:443
/Users/tim/.rvm/rubies/ruby-2.2.1/bin/ruby (2.2.1-p85)
OpenSSL 1.0.1j 15 Oct 2014: /etc/openssl

HEAD https://accounts.google.com:443
OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError: SSL_connect returned=1 errno=0 state=SSLv3 read server certificate B: certificate verify failed

The server presented a certificate that could not be verified:
  subject: /C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./CN=GeoTrust Global CA
  issuer: /C=US/O=Equifax/OU=Equifax Secure Certificate Authority
  error code 20: unable to get local issuer certificate

Possible causes:
  `/etc/openssl/certs/‚ is empty

So it seems that there are no certificates present in /etc/openssl/certs which turned out to be correct. Nothing was present.

Question is why the heck is it even looking here?
When you installed openssl using brew your installation should reside in /usr/local/bin/openssl. The corresponding certificates therefore are in /usr/local/etc/openssl/certs.

During further desperate attempts I completely uninstalled rvm and was back on plain old ruby-2.0 with comes preinstalled with OS X. Suddenly it worked:

ruby doctor.rb accounts.google.com:443
/System/Library/Frameworks/Ruby.framework/Versions/2.0/usr/bin/ruby (2.0.0-p481)
OpenSSL 0.9.8za 5 Jun 2014: /System/Library/OpenSSL

HEAD https://accounts.google.com:443
warning: will not be able show failed certificate info on OS X's OpenSSL


So the rvm-installed ruby does look into the wrong directory for certificates whereas the OSX-ruby will look into the correct one. In it’s case that is a OSX system-directory.

So the rvm-installed ruby is the problem.

This discussion on Github finally gave the solution: Somehow RVM comes with a precompiled version of ruby that is statically linked against an openssl that looks into /etc/openssl for it’s certificates.

What you wanna do is NOT TO USE any of the precompiled rubies and rather have ruby compiled on your local machine, like so: rvm install 2.2.0 --disable-binary

This will take longer but is worth it:

ruby doctor.rb accounts.google.com:443
/Users/tim/.rvm/rubies/ruby-2.2.0/bin/ruby (2.2.0-p0)
OpenSSL 1.0.2a 19 Mar 2015: /usr/local/etc/openssl

HEAD https://accounts.google.com:443

Happy times.

Update 2016-08-23: I wrote about how to fix this problem under Windows.

Update 2016-11-16: Several people have mentioned that this problem still persists even in OSX Yosemite, OSX El Capitan, OSX Sierra and also macOS. This solution still works with all of them. But another way is to switch over to rbenv instead of RVM. Which is what I did in the meantime.